Friday, March 22, 2019

Cherokee Principal Chief Bill John Baker's Commemoration of Trail of Tear IGNORES the SLAVES THEY DRAGGED AS PROPERTY

Image from Vocativ.com

Baker's commemoration without a mention of their slave descendants is in full at INDIANZ.com  I have a few excerpts here.



On March 24 we commemorate the 180th anniversary of the end of the infamous Trail of Tears with a National Day of Remembrance.
On this day in 1839, the last detachment of our ancestors’ forced removal from their homelands in the southeast region of the United States occurred as they marched to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. We remember and honor the sacrifices and untold hardships of our ancestors. Those who completed the trek and those who perished on that brutal journey will always remain in our hearts and in our minds.
AND
During the Trail of Tears, an estimated 4,000 Cherokees perished along the way, which represented about one quarter of our tribe. The grit and determination of our ancestors allowed them to not only survive adversity, despair and grief, but it empowered them to thrive. That sense of where we come from and who we are is deeply rooted in who we are as Cherokee people.
Their slaves ALSO PERISHED, and those who survived had despair and grief and yes, they thrived and fought their battles to VICTORY, 150 years after the Trail of Tears.  Read about the Cherokee Freemen History here and here 

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Lake Elsinore SUPER BLOOM BLOCKING PECHANGA RESORT & CASINO Traffic

Pechanga coughs up money to improve traffic flow to the casino after super bloom fans clog up the roads, delaying gamblers.
See the source image











PECHANGA – The Pechanga Tribal Council on Thursday, March 21 announced a grant of up to $100,000 to the City of Lake Elsinore to support the city’s efforts to aid with traffic control surrounding the “super bloom.”

Last weekend, more than 150,000 people were estimated to have visited the hillsides off of Interstate 15 in Lake Elsinore. On Sunday, March 17, local officials were forced to cut off access and stopped courtesy shuttles running to the flower-covered hills, calling the crowding “unbearable.”
“This natural wonder is a treasure to be enjoyed by Californians, but we need to be responsible about it,” said Pechanga Tribal Chairman Mark Macarro.

“Elsinore is part of our ancestral territory, and we even have reservation lands there. We are pleased to support the city and our local partners to help better manage traffic control and public safety for the thousands of visitors enjoying the super bloom, as well as the local residents and commuters impacted by traffic conditions. Conservation and protection of our natural resources are important values to our tribe.”
The City of Lake Elsinore will be able to use the Pechanga grant funds for additional resources including law enforcement, traffic control, shuttles, public safety personnel, and super bloom area protection (OP:notice how that's LAST?)

“We are extremely grateful for this generous contribution from Pechanga,” said Mayor Steve Manos. “This will ensure we can continue to fund the resources and support needed to provide for the safety of our residents and visitors.” (OP: Notice how he doesn't mention the natural resources)

Monday, March 18, 2019

Nooksack 306 Youth, Kiana Hart Takes Down The EVILS of Disenrollment

Watch Kiana Hart, age 18, part of the Nooksack 306, from A.C. Davis High School and a  Senior, TAKE DOWN disenrollment and all of its evils, at a state level debate tournament at the University of Puget Sound.  THIS is what we need from our young people who are disenrolled.  Telling the stories of those affected by this scourge.   Well done Kiana



 

Movement to End 'Redface' Is Slow Say Native Americans

Standing Rock Sioux John Little:  
Doesn't hear widespread outrage over these images that many Native Americans find offensive, even as the country has spent most of the year coming to grips with blackface and racist imagery following the revelation of a racist photo on the Virginia governor's college yearbook page. Since then, new examples have surfaced regularly, most recently a TV host who painted her face brown in a parody of Oscar-nominated Mexican actress Yalitza Aparicio.
"These are everyday realities for Native people," said Little
READ THE FULL STORY          

Saturday, March 16, 2019

21st Century Indian Wars Has 11,000 Casualties and Growing

On Tribal Disenrollments and the Beginning of the End of Sovereignty



In the 21st .Century, who would have thought that the Indian Wars would begin anew? This is not the war of racist whites who wanted to move west no matter who was hurt. This time, it's greedy Indians who want more power and more money, no matter which tribal members they hurt. The 21st century Indian War is now Indian vs. Indian. Tribes such as Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indiansof Temecula, Redding Rancheria, Jamul of San Diego, Enterprise Rancheria (OP:Which recently brought some members and ancestors back) are violating their members civil rights, eliminating them from tribal rolls and denying them their part of the tribe. Over ELEVEN THOUSAND Indians have had their citizenship stripped

And because of California Tribe's use of sovereignty, it can be "we just don't like you" or "we don't believe the evidence" (are you going to believe me or your lying eyes?), In California's Indian Country, wealthy casino tribes are gorging themselves with cash, the fruits of their casino, thanks to laws passed by the citizens of California. Prop 1A and Prop. 5 were passed overwhelmingly, thanks to ads that promised not to expand gaming and to help tribes with self reliance. Was abusing their people's rights what they meant by that?

Tuesday, March 12, 2019

Disenrollment for GREED and POWER, At Pechanga The Theft of Per Capita is nearing ONE BILLION DOLLARS


STILL THINK That TRIBAL DISENROLLMENT IS NOT ABOUT THE MONEY?


Anthony Broadman 
of the prestigious Galanda Broadman law firm just wrote about tribal disenrollment for greed and power  so let's explore a little Pechanga greed and power.

Since 2006, the year of our disenrollment, the Hunter family has lost $3,484,000 per person, in per capita payments alone. We arrived at that figure by taking the last full year of per capita $268,000/12 months ($22,333) and multiplying that loss times 156 months of disenrollment (13 years). 95 adults at the time of disenrollment equals:  $330,975,000

The Apis/
Manuela Miranda family was disenrolled two years prior in 2004. The per capita at that time was slightly less, about $17,000 per month times 180 months of termination: $3,060,000 multiply by 135 adults equals:  $413,100,000

Add some NOW, for the 100 or so children who would have reached the age of majority and you are looking at another $100 million in per capita and benefits.

Moratorium People NEVER shared in what was rightfully theirs. In fact, Pechanga's Enrollment Committee worked hard to KEEP them from their rightful place, so as not to reduce the per capita.  Think of this, HAD the Tosobol descendants alone been  included, 80 who may have reduced the first six years of per capita to say $140,000 total. That's an additional $200+ MILLION..
ADD those numbers up and it's nearly ONE BILLION at Pechanga alone

The per capita at Pechanga went up to $360,000 per year for those remaining after elimination of 25% of Pechanga’s tribal citizens, and varies now with children maturing into adulthood.

With Mark Macarro not being opposed at tribal chairman, he's consolidated his power and can spend unchecked.. so it's not JUST about the money.....

I have old data on other tribes disenrolled's losses here  so, for you to bellieve it's not about the money, you have to be blind.  To think it's just about correcting tribal rolls, is laughable as long as there are PROVABLE tribal members still enrolled in tribes.

Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Report: Fighting the Colonizer InsideTraditional Kinship, Blood Quantum, and Disenrollment from the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska


Wonderful article by Marisa Miakonda Cummings on how Disenrollment destroys kinship and uses the colonizer's blood quantum to destroy families.

The Omaha Tribe of Nebraska’s tribal council and enrollment officer have stated that I have been removed as a tribal member (though I have yet to receive official documentation of my expulsion, a removal known as “disenrollment”). 

Thursday, February 28, 2019

Hopland Tribe Removes Enrollment Committee Member WITHOUT Presenting Evidence


We've written about the HOPLAND disenrollments here and here and here   Now the evidence is out that Hopland has removed ONE member of their Enrollment Committee for the egregious action of questioning the disenrollments, yet NO evidence was presented. 

Carla Antone is OUT we wrote about it in November, and there are new issues on that termination in violation of their own constitution
 

From her Facebook Page:

FINALLY after two months of waiting on December minutes from TC meeting I get them. As you can see..TC removed me for so-called violating EC policy, which, there is no proof and without cause.

WHERE IS THE PROOF I VIOLATED THIS POLICY!

Sonny Elliott LIED to me about the process of my removal. He skipped the voting by the EC to remove me, Sonny violated the committee policy, he violated my due process rights per our Constitution.

A
ntone vows a fight in tribal court. 

Per our committee policies, the only way the Chair of the EC can bring her complaint forth to Council is by a unanimous vote by the Committee to remove me.

OP: How can tribes be taken seriously, when they are not responsible enough to follow their own rules/laws?  Next thing you know, their casino closes and people are out of work, and maybe a HUGE pot bust on the rez.... oh yeah, that happened.

Congressman Jared Huffman has been contacted for help.  Crickets are SO LOUD he might be going unheard...



Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Non State/Federally Reconized Tribe the UNA Tribe, Grants Fake Cherokee Sen Elizabeth Warren, membership..

Members of the Una Tribe, a Native American “mixed-blood tribe founded in 2009 after its membership was rejected by other Native American nations, have granted Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) enrollment in their tribe, according to a report by a CBS affiliate in Eugene, Oregon.


If she’s Native American or of Native American descent, that means she’s a mixed blood, and we stand by her and her statement that she’s part Native American,” said Richard Lake, the co-founder of the Una Tribe.  (OP:  No words if he's related to Iron Eyes Cody) and (OP: SHE'S NOT, and she claimed CHEROKEE)

“With that in mind, the Una Nation put together a welcome packet for the Massachusetts Senator,” CBS Eugene, Oregon reported.

Lake then went through the welcome packet, which included a welcome letter and a certification of tribal enrollment.  READ More HERE

Monday, February 25, 2019

Gavin Newsom REAPPOINTS Disenrollment Tribe's Member as Advisor

Newly elected California Governor Gavin Newsom is okay with a member of a tribe that disenrolls for dollars, the Dry Creek Rancheria as an advisor.

News Release:
Christina Snider, 32, of Auburn, has been reappointed Tribal Advisor in the Office of the Governor and Executive Secretary to the Native American Heritage Commission.

Snider is a member of the Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians and has served as an Indian Child Welfare Act representative for the Tribe since 2017.

She was of counsel at Ceiba Legal LLP from 2016 to 2017, staff attorney at the National Congress of American Indians (LOL) from 2015 to 2016, a legal fellow at the Wishtoyo Foundation in 2014 and a law clerk in the Office of Tribal Justice at the U.S. Department of Justice in 2012. Snider is a member of the Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians Housing Advisory Committee and the California Indian Law Association. This position does not require Senate confirmation and the compensation is $167,952. Snider is a Democrat.

READ MORE about DRY CREEK RANCHERIA DISENROLLMENTS:

Tribal Disenrollments: Dry Creek POMO Indians Fight for Control

Dry Creek Rancheria to DEFAULT on BONDS: Do YOU STILL believe Disenrollments WEREN'T about the MONEY?

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Colville Tribes Have REMOVED Councilwoman Andrea George For Intimidating Witness

A leader of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation has been removed from office.

The Colville Business Council (CBC) voted 8-6 on Thursday to expel Andrea George for allegedly intimidating a witness. Her removal is "effective immediately," according to a press release

"The decision was based upon the CBC’s determination that George committed improper influence, gross misconduct and malfeasance while a council member, in violation of the Colville Tribes’ Constitution and Chapter 1-8 of the Colville Tribal Code," the press release stated.

Read the rest at INDIANZ.com

Saturday, February 23, 2019

San Manuel Band of Mission Indians Donates $25 MILLION to Loma Linda Children's Hospital

WELL DONE, Thank you San Manuel......

The San Manuel Band of Mission Indians gifted Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital $25 million on Thursday night, February 21, at the 26th Annual Children’s Hospital Foundation Gala, held at the Riverside Convention Center.

Tribal Secretary Ken Ramirez, who presented the gift on behalf of the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, said this donation — the largest donation San Manuel has ever made — will forge an even stronger partnership with Loma Linda University Health to move the community forward in health and wellness.

“San Manuel is grateful for the compassion shown to our elders by Loma Linda University Health many decades ago,” Ramirez said. “We are excited about the new opportunities and lifesaving care that the new Children’s Hospital will offer to our shared community and loved ones.”

Friday, February 22, 2019

ISIS BRIDE's Citizenship Gets NATIONAL Attention 11,000 Natives Loss Gets NOTHING?


Hoda Muthana ISIS BRIDE
                                                                           photo by Hassan Shibly

Much press given to ONE Isis Bride possibly losing her citizenship, as determined by the OBAMA administration, not TRUMP's, yet NO press given to 11,000 Native Americans stripped of citizenship via tribal disenrollment not for terrorism, but to minimize opposition and to steal $1BILLION in per capita. Over $500 Million from the Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indians alone. 

CAIR is putting up a fight, something that Native Americans do not get from NARF, NCAI, Indian Affairs, and most other prominent Native Groups  from CAIR Florida's Hassan Shibly:

Thursday, February 21, 2019

Al Jazeera Op ED WHO is NATIVE AMERICAN?

Al Jazeera op ed by Alaina Roberts discusses Elizabeth Warren's Cherokee ancestry claims debunked by Cherokee genealogists and the Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes.

"Native American" is not just a racial category, it is also a political identity because tribal nations are acknowledged as sovereign governments in the US. When someone claims to be Native American, he or she also claims access to political and economic benefits hard-won by native governments in brutal legal battles over tribal sovereignty.

Also see THIS VIDEO from Al Jazeera on belonging

Wednesday, February 20, 2019

After a Decade of Indifference, Is Kamala Harris Fellating Native America with "Indigenous Day" Swap?

KAMALA HARRIS
NO FRIEND to Native Americans
photo by Washington Examiner

California's junior Senator Kamala Harris, the #MeToo candidate, well #MeToo in terms of "jumping on the bandwagon" anyway, finding ALL the "good ideas" like free college, medicare for all, Green New Deal have been taken by the other Democrat Party Candidates, has now gone with converting Columbus Day to Indigenous People's DAY!

Tuesday, February 19, 2019

PALA WATCH: Who is Robert Smith, PALA's Current Chairman Is.....



Pala's porcine "leader", Robert Smith is profiled by our friends at PALA WATCH follow their blog for information on the corruption...

The government and fools have chosen to refer to Robert Smith as Honorable. They do so even with the knowledge of his far-ranging criminal activities. They do this either because they are the beneficiaries of his ill-gotten gain or simply admirers of power without regard of it source.

Monday, February 18, 2019

Conner Whitten, Pechanga Descendant, Strives to Help Other American Indians

My cousin Conner Whitten, a Paulina Hunter descendant, doing his entire extended family PROUD with this feature in CSUSM magazine


Conner Whitten
Pechanga Descendant


As the first in his family to attend college, Conner Whitten knows all too well the challenges faced by first-generation students.

For Conner, those challenges not only included helping his parents understand the often complex, painstaking process of earning a degree, but also his decision to continue pursuing higher education beyond a bachelor’s.

In fact, it was only a few years ago that Conner’s father figured his son had it made when he was promoted from busser to bartender at a sports bar and grill at Pechanga Resort and Casino.

Friday, February 15, 2019

Pechanga News Report: Thousands of Native Americans are being kicked out of tribes across the Country

Colleen Williams of KNBC Los Angeles fronted the story of Pechanga's Disenrollment, which is the STRIPPING of Tribal Citizenship, in this case, the Hunter Family, who had more documentation, than ANY other tribal family.  The Pechanga Resort & Casino has helped many in the tribe, and hurt many others. #stopdisenrollment




In the opening, Pechanga Chairman Mark Macarro, sets up a strawman argument, which we beat down with facts here

Monday, February 11, 2019

Sexual Predator Pechanga Member Instrumental In Disenrollment of Two Families ARRESTED AGAIN

Former Pechanga Chairman
Vincent Ibanez
Old age isn't a deterrent from sex crimes, apparently, but no children were involved this time.   The man, whose statement from prison the Pechanga Tribe was HAPPY to use in the disenrollments of the Hunter Family was arrested AGAIN on suspicion of sexual crimes charges, which according to Riverside Sheriff's Arrest Log include:
243.4(B) - Sexual Battery On Institutionalized Victim
667(A)(1) - Conviction Of Prior Serious Felony Offense
29800(A)1 - Addict in Possession of Firearm
One of the statements against us was from former Pechanga chairman Vincent Ibanez who wrote a letter from prison, where he was finishing up a sentence for child molestation, in which he says, “I praise you for all your hard work and wish you all success in beating these imposters and all of the others too. I only wish I could be there to sense the real Pechangas coming forward.” Read more HERE.

THIS is the type of person the Pechanga Tribe was HAPPY to use against us, even if he was wrong...

After MURDER at Pechanga, ROBOTS Patrolling the Casino



Native Business Mag has the story:

Artificial intelligence may soon be coming to a Tribal casino near you. 
“Buddy” is the new, ultra-alert security guard at Pechanga Casino and Resort.
The impetus for the robot—that zips across the Pechanga lobby and even introduces himself to patrons—was extra security, following the Las Vegas shooting on October 1, 2017

NAJA Launches Investigations Collective: Disenrollment, Corruption...



I'll take.... BETTER LATE THAN NEVER for $1,000 Alex.   After half a decade of giving stories to NAJA on Facebook, they STEP UP on Investigations!

In a historic step to support investigative journalism in Indigenous communities, the Native American Journalists Association (NAJA) launched the Indigenous Investigative Collective (IIC).

Friday, February 8, 2019

#StopDisenrollment: Saginaw Chippewa Disenrolled Reach the Suffering Stage



From the Saginaw Chippewa Disenrolled

What is most tragic about disenrollment is that some have lost their homes, no health insurance and some have major health issues, they are just trying to survive, legal bills to fight the disenrollment has now taken over. It has taken a deep , devastating toll on them all.  

#StopDisenrollment: Former San Manuel Tribal Chairman Deron Marquez Speaks Out Against TRIBAL DISENROLLMENT

A stellar opinion piece from Dr. Deron Marquez, former chairman of the San Manuel Band in San Bernardino CA.
Image result for Deron Marquez images
Dr. Deron Marquez

Since the turn of the century, tribal governments (Pechanga, Pala, Chukchansi, Nooksack among them) have quickened the dismemberment pace and it has become far too easy for tribal governments to “tribally divest” tribal citizens. These actions are a hold-over from a foreign government’s attempt at a “final solution” once used to rid the land of Indians, but it is now tribal governments who seek to rid their lands and financial obligations to Indians.

Tribal governments refuse to engage in local or national dismemberment conversations, citing the federal court decision Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez and calling the act of deciding who is enrolled to be a “sovereign” prerogative. But this is not a query of enrollment; that axiom is long accepted.  

Tuesday, February 5, 2019

Elizabeth Warren BUSTED: SHE DID Identify as Native American. Can She be TRUSTED After Apology

Using an open records request during a general inquiry, for example, The Washington Post obtained Warren’s registration card for the State Bar of Texas, providing a previously undisclosed example of Warren identifying as an “American Indian.”




This makes her a LIAR, yes?   To find Warren's GENEALOGY, Go to Twila Barnes' website Thoughts From Polly's Granddaughter

The Texas bar registration card is significant, among other reasons, because it removes any doubt that Warren directly claimed the identity. In other instances Warren has declined to say whether she or an assistant filled out forms.

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Cherokee SecState on Elizabeth Warren, DNA and Tribal Citizenship

Well done opinion piece from Chuck Hoskin Jr. The Cherokee Nations Secretary of State.
Recent political events from Senator Elizabeth Warren’s DNA results have raised important questions nationally of what it means to be a citizen of a federally recognized tribe. These events—and disparaging statements made by elected leaders and political pundits in response—may cause some to question the value of tribal citizenship. 

The right of a tribe to determine its citizenship is the most basic and inherent function of a sovereign government. But citizenship is a concept that many outside tribal governments do not understand.

As I discuss citizenship with non-Native friends, I talk about my family table. During holidays, our family table is shared by my immediate family, and friends we do not get to see that often. They are all welcome and loved as we share food, stories and laughter.

However, if something tragic were to happen to me or my wife, not everyone at that table would be entitled to inherit my house or become legally responsible for my kids. Those friends at my table will no doubt be critical in healing and providing love for those left behind, but it is my immediate family that will have their own rights and responsibilities in the eyes of the law.

This concept of family is key to understanding why citizenship matters. Everyone who cares about us as Natives are welcome, but at critical moments those that have legal and cultural standing have a unique place with specific rights and responsibilities.

That is why it offends us when some of our national leaders seek to inappropriately ascribe membership or citizenship to themselves. They would be welcome to our table as friends, but claiming to be family to gain a spot at the table is unwelcome. 

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Redding Rancheria Family Disenrolled Because of GREED. The FOREMAN FAMILY Was UNJUSTLY Stripped of Citizenship

Fifteen years ago, in Sept.  2003, the LATimes reporter Michael Hiltzik had the story of the disenrollment of the Foreman family from the Redding Rancheria.  Please READ and share

Virginia Timmons

The late Virginia Timmons was among the 17 Indians still living on the Redding Rancheria when it was disbanded by federal order in 1959, one of the sad milestones of the Indian experience in California.

Her daughter, Lorena, was among the 130 original members enrolled in the tribal group after its reestablishment 24 years later, a restoration that came about partly through the efforts of her grandson, Bob Foreman.


To this day, many of Virginia Timmons' 75 descendants remember her as the cheerful woman they called "Nano." She loved the music of Elvis and used to startle guests by uttering phrases from a near-forgotten tribal language in her sleep. Many of her offspring have served the rancheria as members of the tribal council, executives of its health clinic, administrators of its educational programs or managers of its thriving Win-River casino.

By almost any measure, Timmons' family would have to be ranked among the leading clans of the Redding Rancheria, which sits on 30 acres of land in the shadow of Mt. Shasta. So one can only imagine their dismay at the movement to kick them all out of the tribal organization.

Rep. Jared Huffman Named Committee Chair On House Natural Resources Subcommittee: CAN HE HELP AGGRIEVED Hopland Natives?

Good to hear that Democrat Rep. Jared Huffman has been named chair of the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water, Power and Oceans  by House Natural Resources Chairman RAUL GRIJALVA who has supported disenrolling tribes like Pechanga in water rights theft


If you'll recall, the HOPLAND 74, which was disenrolled a few years back wrote him a letter asking for help to assist Native Americans who have had their civil and human rights violated.  He was in the minority and couldn't help...but NOW, as CHAIR, he's much more powerful and can discuss the issues with the subcommittee on INDIAN, INSULAR AND ALASKA NATIVE AFFAIRS .

The QUESTION:  WILL Rep. Jared Huffman HELP?

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Restorative Justice and Tribal Disenrollment: Bring the People Home, Give the Ancestors Peace

Pechanga's Lawrence Madariaga
Died While Disenrolled - Too Late for Justice

Our Ancestors were disgraced by tribal disenrollment, our elders abused, lives ruined, our children separated from their history, their culture and our future generations wiped out, by simple paper transactions.

Is restorative justice what's needed to heal the wounds, salve the pain and bring honor back to tribes that have harmed over 11,000 Native Americans over the last decade?

The theory of restorative justice is from the criminal arena.  While tribal disenrollment in many cases is not illegal, in some cases it runs contrary to tribal constitutions, or against tribal laws.

CRIME based theory of Restorative Justice

Tribal Disenrollment: Osage Nation vs Reta Linter Rescheduled

From Osage News:

The Reta Lintner case is slated to be decided by jury trial, which will be the first in the history of the 2006 Osage reformed government. The pre trial portion is rescheduled to Feb. 6

A petition for Lintner’s disenrollment from the Nation was first filed in April 2016. Lintner’s family claims they are descendants of original allottee Paschal Canville through an illegitimate daughter, Lola Brown. According to the ON membership law, a person must be a lineal descendant of an original allottee from the 1906 Allotment Act in order to be eligible for Osage citizenship.

In December 2017, ON Trial Court Associate Judge Lee Stout ordered the Attorney General’s office to collect samples from 11 of Canville’s known descendants, noting the membership office’s use of DNA testing in paternity cases. Although a handful provided non-invasive samples via mouth swabs, none were male. The testing facility contracted by the tribe, Bio-Gene DNA Testing, previously stated it could not complete the testing without a male participant.

If Lintner is found not to be a legitimate tribal citizen, she and her relatives could be ordered to repay any Osage Nation financial benefits received while enrolled with the tribe. 

According to Osage law, jury trials are permitted in both civil and criminal cases.

The law also states: “juries, except for cases prosecuted under special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, shall consist of six Osage Nation members who reside within Osage County, Oklahoma. The court may, in its discretion, appoint one alternate juror. A verdict may be reached in either a civil or criminal case by the affirmative vote of four of the six jurors.”