A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership (or perceived membership) of a certain social group or racial demographic.
While stripping the tribal citizenship from perceived enemies and those not following those in power in lockstep is NOT a crime, though the violations of civil and human rights should be, the results can be the same. So, would they just be bias incidents that affect 11,000 living?
Elders lose their heritage, their kinship, their health benefits. Children grow up with no sense of tribal belonging and without the benefits they should have.
At Pechanga the answers to the above would be Yes, No, Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, and Yes
At Redding Rancheria, they forced the Foreman family to DIG UP their ancestors then didn't accept the evidence of 99.8% DNA test.
At Nooksack, much was racist based, with the tribe disenrolling their members who had Asian family.
At first look, disenrollment may not SEEM like a hate crime, but I assure you, it only SEEMS that way.
Here is the aspect that fits:
- Retaliatory – perpetrators engage in hate crimes out of a desire for revenge. This can be in response to personal slights, other hate crimes or terrorism. The "avengers" target members of a group whom they believe committed the original crime, even if the victims had nothing to do with it. These kinds of hate crimes are a common occurrence after terrorist attacks.