The estimable Cecily Hilleary has an excellent article up in Voice of America. You can read the full article here ...Paper Genocide.. We have used the term paper genocide to describe disenrollment. It also applies here.
For thousands of years, Native tribes understood “belonging” in terms of social kinship. Settler colonialism, however, introduced notions of race to determine social status, eligibility to marry, hold office or own land.
By the 19th century, terms such as “mixed-blood” and “half-breed” crept into treaties such as that with the Osage in 1825, by which the United States set aside a separate reservation for “half-breeds.”
Gradually, BQ became the standard test for deciding who was eligible for land and treaty benefits.
PLEASE read the full article at the link above
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